DAST-124L Expanded Functions for Dental Assistants Lab
Credits 0 / 3 Contact Hours
Pre-requisite: Divison signature is required for registration. Placement into College Level Reading, completion of ELAP-120 with a 2.0 or higher, or successful completion of ACRD-090, ACRD-091 or ACRD-092; DAST-110, DAST-111, DAST-112, DAST-112L, DAST-113, DAST-115, DAST-116, DAST-116L, DAST-117, DAST-117C, DAST-117L.
The lab portion of DAST-124 Expanded Functions for Dental Assistants.
Chapter 1 - Overview of Healthy Eating Habits • List the general physiological functions of the six nutrient classifications of foods. • Identify factors that influence food habits. • Name the food groups in MyPlate. • State the amounts needed from each of the food groups in MyPlate for a well-balanced 2000 kilocalorie diet. • Identify, significant nutrient contributions of each food group, and assess their implications for oral health. • State the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and their purpose. • Assess dietary intake of a patient, using the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and MyPlate Food Guidance System. • Explain the different purposes of dietary reference intakes (DRIs), MyPlate, and reference daily intakes (RDIs). • Apply basic nutritional concepts to help patients with nutrition-related problems. Chapter 2 - The Alimentary Canal: Digestion and Absorption • Discuss factors that influence food intake. • Describe general functions of each digestive organ. • Identify chemical secretions necessary for digestion of energy-containing nutrients and in what parts of the gastrointestinal tract they are secreted. • Name the nutrients that require digestion and the digested products that can be absorbed. • Explain the role of gastrointestinal motility in the digestion and absorption process. • Use the information from the points in Nutritional Directions for a dental patient. • Describe how the digestion and absorption processes may affect nutritional status and oral health. Chapter 3 - Carbohydrate: The Efficient Fuel • Identify major carbohydrates in foods and in the body. • List ways glucose can be used by the body. • State the functions of dietary carbohydrate. • State why carbohydrates should be included in the diet. • Identify dietary sources of lactose, other sugars, and starches. • State the role and sources of dietary fiber. • State the number of kilocalories provided per gram of carbohydrate. • Describe the role of carbohydrate in the caries process. • Make recommendations concerning carbohydrate consumption when counseling patients to reduce risk for dental caries. Chapter 4 - Protein: The Cellular Foundation Specific Learning Objective: • List the possible fates of amino acids. • Classify foods as sources of high-quality or lower-quality proteins. • Explain how protein foods can be used to complement one another. • Plan menus to include the recommended protein level for a meat-containing diet and a vegetarian diet. • Explain why various physiological states require different amounts of protein. • State the problems associated with protein deficiency or excess. • Assess a patient’s protein consumption in terms of deficiency or excess. • Incorporate nutrition principles regarding food intake to prevent protein deficiency and protein excess into patient counseling. Chapter 5 - Lipids: The Condensed Energy • Identify the basic structural units of dietary lipids. • Describe how fatty acids affect the properties of fat. • Name the essential fatty acids and some of their functions. • List the functions of fats in the body, and explain how these affect oral health. • List dietary sources for saturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated, omega-3 and trans fatty acids, and cholesterol. • State the number of kilocalories provided per gram of fat. • Plan appropriate interventions when dietary modification of fat intake has been recommended to a patient. • Identify nutritional directions for patients concerning fats. Chapter 6 - Utilization of the Energy and Nutrients: Metabolism and Balance • Calculate energy needs according to the patient’s weight and activities. • Explain physiological sources of energy. • Identify factors affecting the basal metabolic rate. • Assess factors affecting energy balance. • Describe the effects of inadequate energy intake. • Explain the principles for regulating energy balance to a patient. Chapter 7 - Vitamins Required for Calcified Structures • List the fat-soluble vitamins. • Compare the characteristics of water-soluble vitamins with those of fat-soluble vitamins. • Identify functions, deficiencies, surpluses, and toxicities and oral symptoms for vitamins A, D, E, K, and C. • Select food sources for vitamins A, D, E, K, and C. • Identify dental hygiene considerations for vitamins A, D, E, K, and C. • Discuss nutritional directions for patients regarding vitamins A, D, E, K, and C. Chapter 8 - Minerals Essential for Calcified Structures • List the minerals found in collagen, bones, and teeth, and describe their main physiological roles and sources. • Describe causes and symptoms of mineral excesses or deficits. • Discuss the role of water fluoridation in the prevention of dental caries. • Describe advantages and disadvantages of mineral supplementation. • Discuss dental hygiene considerations for patients regarding calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and fluoride. • Describe nutritional directions for patients regarding calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and fluoride. Chapter 9 - Nutrients Present in Calcified Structures • List physiological roles and how these might apply to oral health along with sources of copper, selenium, chromium, and manganese. • List ultratrace elements present in the body. • List reasons why large amounts of one mineral may cause nutritional deficiencies of another. • Apply dental hygiene considerations for trace elements present in calcified structures. • Discuss nutritional directions for patients regarding the role of trace elements present in calcified structures. Chapter 10 - Vitamins Required for Oral Soft Tissues and Salivary Glands • Describe oral soft tissue changes that occur in a B-complex deficiency. • Compare and contrast the function, sources, and deficiencies or toxicities and associated symptoms of vitamins and minerals important for healthy oral soft tissues. • Identify dental hygiene considerations for vitamins closely involved in maintaining healthy oral soft tissues. • Differentiate between scientifically based evidence versus food fads concerning vitamins. • Discuss the role and sources of vitamin B12 for vegetarians. • Discuss nutritional directions for vitamins closely involved in maintaining healthy oral soft tissues. • Describe the association between beriberi and alcoholism. Chapter 11 - Water and Minerals Required for Oral Soft Tissues and Salivary Glands • Describe the process of osmosis. • Explain fluid and electrolyte balance. • Identify normal fluid requirements and factors that may affect these requirements. • Discuss the roles, imbalances, and sources of water, sodium, potassium, iron, zinc, and iodine. • Describe oral signs and symptoms of fluid and electrolyte imbalances. • Identify nutritional directions for patients with fluid and electrolyte imbalances. • Identify diseases and medications that may require patients to restrict sodium intake. • Identify the most prominent oral symptoms or signs of iron, zinc, and iodine deficiency. Chapter 12 - Nutritional Requirements Affecting Health in Females Specific Learning Objective: • Assess nutrients commonly supplemented during pregnancy and lactation. • Use national guidelines to recommend food intake during pregnancy and lactation to provide adequate nutrients. • List factors affecting fetal development. • Implement nutrition and oral health considerations for patients who are pregnant or breastfeeding. • Apply nutritional directions for patients who are pregnant or breastfeeding. Chapter 13 - Nutritional Requirements Throughout the Life Cycle and Eating Habits Affecting Oral Health • Describe the procedure for introducing solid foods after the initial stage of feeding by bottle or breast. • Discuss ways to handle typical nutritional problems that occur in infants, young children, school-age children, and adolescents. • Apply dental hygiene aspects related to nutritional needs during infancy, early childhood, elementary school years, and adolescence to patient care. • Assess nutrition education needs for patients during infancy, early childhood, elementary school years, and adolescence. • Discuss physiological changes that alter the nutritional status of infants and adolescents. Chapter 14 - Nutritional Requirements Throughout the Life Cycle and Eating Habits Affecting Oral Health • Discuss ways to handle typical nutritional problems occurring in older adults. • Know dental hygiene considerations of nutritional needs that occur in older patients. • Identify nutrition education needs for older patients. • Discuss physiological changes altering an older patient’s nutritional status. • Discuss differences in amounts of nutrients needed by older patients compared with younger patients. • Describe factors influencing food intake of older patients. • Suggest dietary changes that could be implemented to provide optimum nutrient intake for older patients. Chapter 15 - Other Considerations Affecting Nutrient Intake • Explain how a patient can obtain adequate nutrients from different cultural food patterns. • Identify reasons for food patterns. • Respect cultural and religious food patterns while providing nutritional counseling for patients. • Describe food preparation and storage techniques to retain nutrient value. • Provide referral sources for nutritional resources. • Identify patient education necessary for economical food purchases. • Explain the effects of food processing, convenience foods, and fast foods on a patient’s overall intake. • Discuss reasons why food additives are used. • List reasons why health quackery can be dangerous. • Identify common themes of health quackery and why they are contrary to evidence-based research. Chapter 16 - Effects of Systemic Disease on Nutritional Status and Health • Recognize various diseases, conditions, and treatments that commonly have oral signs and symptoms. • Recognize diseases, conditions, and treatments likely to affect nutritional intake. • Critically assess the implications of the patient’s systemic disease or conditions for optimal oral health. • Plan appropriate dental hygiene interventions for patients with systemic diseases or conditions with oral manifestations based on dietary guidelines. Chapter 17 - Nutritional Aspects of Dental Caries: Causes, Prevention and Treatment • Explain the role each of the following play in the caries process: tooth, saliva, food, and plaque biofilm. • Identify foods that stimulate salivary flow • Suggest food choices and their timing to reduce the cariogenicity of a patient’s diet. • Describe characteristics of foods having noncariogenic or cariostatic properties. • Provide dietary counseling to a patient at risk for dental caries. Chapter 18 - Nutritional Aspects of Gingivitis and Periodontal Disease • Identify the role nutrition plays in periodontal health and disease. • List the effects of food consistency and composition in periodontal disease. • Describe nutritional factors associated with gingivitis and periodontitis. • Discuss components of nutritional counseling for a periodontal patient. • List major differences between full liquid, mechanical soft, bland, and regular diets.